Glossary Of Hajj & Umrah

Glossary Of Hajj & Umrah

Abtah:

Abtah is a place which is formed by a flood,it is usually leveled and contains no pebbles or any type of rocks. This term is given to places that become leveled streams of water. It is also known as Al-Abtah.
Bat-haa’ is referring to a place between Makkah and Madina, it is called this due to its level wide valley. It is also called Al-Muhassib.

Ihraam:
The word Ihraam is based on an Arabic word that means to prevent something. Sometimes a man wears an Ihraam to in the sacred month, or when he goes to perform Hajj or Umrah. It is called this because some acts which were lawful to him become prohibited, such as hunting and sexual intercourse.
Fortunately, scholars mentioned several meanings for Ihraam, all are close; we choose the following: the intention to start performing the rituals of Hajj or Umrah.

Ihsaar:
Ihsaar is based on an Arabic word that means incapability.The term applies to everyone who is sopped from something,therefore, cannot achieve it. According to the Sharee‘ah, Ihsaar refers to every impediment, whether it is an enemy, a disease or the like, that prevents the pilgrim from completing his rituals.

Istitaa‘ah:
Istitaa‘ah means the ability to do something. In Sharee‘ah, it refers to the ability of the person who is competent for religious assignment to do his duties without need of any one else. Books of Fiqh listed various forms of Istitaa‘ah; the form that makes Hajj an obligation means possessing necessary provisions and means of travel as detailed in the relevant books of Fiqh.

Istilaam:
Istilaam in Arabic means to touch using your hand or mouth. In the Sharee‘ah, Istilaam of the Black Stone means kissing it or touching it with the hand. Jaabir, May Allah Be Pleased with him, related that the Prophet  touched the [Yamaani] Corner during his pilgrimage. If the pilgrim who makes Tawaaf around the Ka‘bah cannot touch or kiss the Black Stone, he should stand facing it, point to it and say Takbeer. In a Hadeeth, Ibn ‘Abbaas, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said: “The Prophet  made Tawaaf around the House on a camel. Whenever he passed by the Corner, he pointed to it with something he had, then he said Takbeer.” The Prophet  said to ‘Umar, May Allah Be Pleased with him, “O ‘Umar! You are a strong man, so do not push to reach the Stone and hence, hurt those who are weak. If you find a space, kiss it and touch it; otherwise, face it and make Takbeer.”If a pilgrim can face the Stone with something, like a stick in his hand, he should do so because the Prophet  did so. Ibn ‘Abbaas, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said, “The Prophet (peace be upon him) made Tawaaf during the Farewell Hajj on a camel and pointed to the Corner with a crook.”

Ishtiraat:
Ishtiraat is based on an Arabic word that suggests stipulation by it. In the context of Ihraam, it occurs when a Muslim assuming the state of Ihraam says, “O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj or Umrah, but my dissolution will be if something stops me from doin so.” This thing may be a disease or an enemy, or anything else that prevents a Muslim in the state of Ihraam from completing the rituals. It is not allowed for him to end his state of Ihraam directly if he has not made Ishtiraat. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And complete theHajj and ‘Umrah for Allaah.} [Qur'an 2:196] Ishtiraat is mentioned in the Sunnah. ‘Aa’ishah, May Allah Be Pleased with her, said: “The Prophet  entered upon ‘Dhubaa‘ah bint Az-Zubayr and asked her if she intended to perform Hajj. When she told him that she was sick, the Prophet  said: “Enter into the state of Ihraam and make Ishtiraat. Say: I would be free from it wherever You (O Allah) Would Detain me.” In another narration, the Prophet  added:”This exception frees you from liability before Allaah The Almighty.”

Ish‘aar:
Ish‘aar means announcement. It may also apply to stabbing an animal in the right side to shed its blood, so that it will be recognized as Hady. Hady is an animal (camels,cows,etc) which is slaughtered and offered in the Sacred Precincts. The majority of scholars stated that Ish‘aar Al-Hady means stabbing the side of the camel’s hump while it faces the Qiblah, thus making it bleed and marking it with its own blood to announce as a sacrificial animal. This includes camels and cows.

Ash-hur Al-Hajj (Months of Hajj):
Months of Hajj refer to the three consecutive months that Allah The Almighty Assigned to be the time for performing Hajj. They are the months of Shawwaal, Thul-Qa‘dah and the whole month of Thul-Hijjah according to the Maaliki scholars, or the first ten days of it according to the majority of scholars. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Hajj is [during] well-known months.} [Quran 2:197] The two opinions are supported with proofs, which are not to be discussed here, but the benefit of this divergence appears in offering the sacrificial animal when Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah is delayed after the months of Hajj.

Ash-hur Hurum (Sacred Months):
The sacred months are four: Thul-Qa‘dah, Thul-Hijjah, Al-Muharram and Rajab. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He Created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred.} [Quran 9:36] The Prophet  said: “The division of time has turned to its original form as it was when Allah Created the Heavens and the Earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred; three are in succession: Thul-Qa‘dah, Thul-Hijjah and Al-Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudhar which comes between Jumaada and Sha‘baan.”

Idhtibaa:
Idhtibaa is based from an Arabic word that means the upper arm. Idhtibaa means wrapping a garment under the right armpit and rolling the two edges over the left arm, so that the right shoulder is open and the left is covered. It is called this because one of the upper arms is left open, something which was done if someone wanted to prepare to work, which is what the pilgrim does when wearing his Ihraam garments.

Ifaadhah:
Ifaadhah is based an Arabic word that signifies spreading. In Ifaadhah means departure of the pilgrims from Arafaat to Madina after completing their rituals in Arafaat. Each group of departing pilgrims is called an Ifaadhah. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {But when you depart from ‘Arafaat, remember Allah at Al- Mash‘ar Al-Haraam.} [Quran 2:198]

Aafaaqi:
The word refers to the horizons of the earth and the heavens. Muslim jurists use the term to refer to a person existing outside the sites of Ihraam even if he is a resident of Makkah. The opposite of Aafaaqi is Hilli or Bustaani, which means the person who is within the limits of Ihraam sites, but outside the Sacred Precincts. The Harami is the one who is within the limits of the Sacred surroundings of Makkah. Sometimes the word Aafaaqi is given to anyone outside the limits of the Sacred surroundings of Makkah.

Ifraad:
Ifraad means single. It also refers to performance of Hajj or Umrah separately. It means declaring the intention to perform Hajj alone during its prescribed months.

Ihlaal:
In Arabic, Ihlaal means raising one’s voice upon seeing the new moon, and it is used to describe any person who raises or lowers his voice. In the context of Hajj, it refers to the pilgrim who enters the state of Ihraam and raises his voice with Talbiyah. It also applies to the person who raises his voice with Talbiyah in ‘Umrah. Muhall refers to the time and place in which pilgrims enter the state of Ihraam.
Ihlaal is making Talbiyah for Hajj or ‘Umrah upon entering the state of Ihaam. In this sense, it has the same meaning of Ihraam because the pilgrim raises his voice with Talbiyah. ‘Aa’ishah, May Allah Be Pleased with her, said: “We accompanied the Prophet  in the Farewell Hajj; some of us made Ihlaal with ‘Umrah and others made Ihlaal with Hajj.” In the same Hadeeth, the Prophet  said: “Whoever made Ihlaal with Hajj should complete it.”

Ayyaam At-Tashreeq (The days of Tashreeq):
The word Tashreeq is based from an Arabic word that means “east” or the rise of the sun from the east. It refers to three meanings:
- Moving toward the direction of the east.
- Eid Prayer because it is performed at the time of sunrise. ‘Ali, May Allaah Be Pleased with him, said: “There is no Tashreeq (Eid Prayer) except in a big city.” [Ibn Hajar: narrated by Abu ‘Ubayd with a Saheeh chain of transmission]
- The three days following the day of An-Nahr (the first day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-ha). This is the common usage of the term.
These three days were called the days of Tashreeq because the Muslims used to make Tashreeq of meat which means to slice, dry and spread the meat of the sacrificial animals under the heat of the sun, as stated by Ibn Hajar, May Allah Have mercy upon him. Days of Tashreeq are also called Al-Ayaam Al-Ma‘doodaat (the numbered days), as Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And remember Allah during [specific] numbered days.} [Quran 2:203] They are also called Ayyaam Mina (the days of Mina), because pilgrims spend these days in Mina.

Ayyaam Mina (Days of Mina):
Mina is a village near Makkah. Allah The Almighty Decreed that sacrificial animals are to be slaughtered there. The Days of Mina are the same days of Tashreeq, as explained above. They are called the Days of Mina because the pilgrim stays in Mina in order to throw the Jimaar.

Badr:
Badr is an Arabic word that means fullness. Badr refers to a widely-known water well located between Makkah and Madina It is said that the well is named after a man called Badr ibn Yakhlud ibn An-Nadhr ibn Kinaanah, who inhabited this area. The blessed Battle of Badr in which truth defeated falsehood took place in the vicinity of this well. All the Companions, May Allah Be Pleased with them, who attended this battle, are attributed to Badr.

Badanah:
Badanah is a camel or a cow slaughtered in Makkah acting as a worship. It refers to the state of fatness or fleshiness. In that sense, Arabic considers camels, cows and sheep, whether male or female, to be Badanah. In the literature of Fiqh, Badanah is a single camel, cow or sheep, male or female.

Baqee’:
Al-Baqee‘ refers to a place where various stumps are found, such as Baqee‘ Al-Gharqad ,which is the graveyard of the people of Al-Madina. It is located inside Al-Madina.

Al-Bayt Al-‘Ateeq:
The word ‘Ateeq is an Arabic word that may signify either ancient or noble. Al-Bayt Al-‘Ateeq is the Ka‘bah. In the Qur’an, Allah The Almighty Says: {Then their place of sacrifice is at the ancient House.} [Quran 22:33] Some say that it is one of the names of Makkah because it is free of tyrants, or because no tyrant can claim the ownership of this House since ‘Ateeq may also be based onan Arabic word meaning to free.

Tahallul:
Tahallul is based on an Arabic root suggesting opening or a knot. Tahallul in Hajj refers to ending the state of Ihraam by virtue of which all restrictions of Hajj return lawful. A pilgrim who makes Tahallul is not in the state of Ihraam and is no longer performing Hajj.

Tadhalla’:
Tadhalla‘ means to eat or drink until your full, as stated in a Hadith. It is a state in which man drinks until his stomach and ribs spread out.

Tafath:
Tafath in Arabic is filth and dirt. In Hajj, Tafath means plucking out one’s hair and clipping the nails, as an act of ending one’s Ihraam. In the Quran, Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {Then let them end their (Tafath) untidiness and fulfill their vows.} [Quran 22:29] meaning let them fulfill their needs of shaving and cleaning. Thus, Tafath is what the pilgrim does after he ends his Ihraam, such as clipping the moustache and nails, plucking armpit hair, shaving pubic hair and other acts that a person in the state of Ihraam is not permitted to do.

Taqleed Al-Hady:
Taqleed means tightening a collar around the neck. To make Taqleed to a camel is to put something around its neck to mark it as a Hady. Hady is livestock (camel, cow or sheep) slaughtered as a sacrificial animal in the Sacred Precincts. Taqleed Al-Hady, therefore, means to fasten a piece of leather or the like around the neck of an animal to declare it to be a sacrificial animal.

Talbiyah:
Talbiyah is based on an Arabic word staying in a specific place. In the context of Hajj, Talbiyah means that a pilgrim says: “Labbayka Allaahumma Labbayk, Labbayka la Shareeka laka Labbayk, Inna Al-Hamda wan-Ni‘mata laka wal-Mulk La Shareeka Lak. (O Allaah! I hasten to You. You Have no partner. I hasten to You. All praise and grace belong to You and the Sovereignty too; You Have no partner)”. It is permissible for the pilgrim to say Talbiyah at any time.

Tamattu:
Tamattu is based on an Arabic word that means enjoyment. It is mentioned in this context because Hajj is an enjoyment and benefit. According to the Sharee‘ah, Tamattu‘ occurs when a Muslim enters the state of Ihraam to perform ‘Umrah during the months of Hajj, then ends it, then enters Ihraam again to perform Hajj in the same year.

Tan’eem:
Tan‘eem is a place in Makkah, which was named so because it is located between a mountain called Nu‘aym on the right and another mountain called Naa‘im on the left. The valley is called Nu‘maan where the people of Makkah enter into the state of Ihraam for Umrah.

Thajj:
Thajj means plentiful water. In the Sharee‘ah terminology, Thajj refers to flow of the blood of sacrificial animals. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The best acts of Hajj is ‘Ajj and Thajj.” [At-Tirmithi, Ibn Maajah and others] Scholars classified this Hadith as Saheeh. ‘Ajj means one’s speaking in a raised voice in Talbiyah.

Jabal Uhud (Mountain of Uhud):
The Mountain of Uhud is located four kilometres to the north of Al-Madina. It is six kilometres long from the east to the west and 1200 meters high. It was the site of the Battle of Uhud that took place in the third year after Hijrah. It was narrated on the authority of Anas, May Allaah Be Pleased with him, that the Prophet  said: “This is a mountain that loves us and that we love.”

Jabal Ar-Rahmah (Mountain of Mercy):
It is a mount in the valley of ‘Arafaat where the Prophet  gave Khutbah in the Farewell Hajj. It is also called Ilaal or the mount of supplication. Jaabir, May Allah Be Pleased with him, in his description of the manner of the Prophet’s Hajj, said: “…he made his she-camel Al-Qaswaa’ turn towards the side where there were rocks, having the path taken by those who went on foot in front of him, and faced the Qiblah…” It is not permissible to climb it, according to the consensus of scholars.

Jabal Thawr (Mount of Thawr):
A mount in Makkah that the Prophet  hid in one of its caves during his migration to Al-Madina. It is the one mentioned in the Quran where Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {When they were in the cave.} [Quran 9:40]

Juhfah:
A large village located along the road to Al-Madina from Makkah. It was called as such because floods stroke it and its people in some years. When the Prophet  arrived at Al-Madina, he found it unhealthy and his Companions suffered fever. He then said: “O Allah, make us love Al-Madeenah as much as You Made us love Makkah or more. O Allah, make it healthy and bless its Saa‘ and Mudd (i.e. measures), and take away its fever to Al-Juhfah.” [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim] Al-Juhafah used to be the site of Ihraam for the people of Egypt, Ash-Shaam and Morocco, but when it was destroyed and became inappropriate for pilgrims, people replaced it with a place called Raabigh, which is a little closer to Makkah, about 186 km from it.

Ji’raanah:
A water place located between At-Taa’if and Makkah to which it is closer. The Prophet  arrived there when he distributed the war boots of Hawaazin after his return from the Battle of Hunayn. The Prophet  entered the state of Ihraam from Al-Ji‘raanah and built a Masjid in it. It also contains some wells close to one another.

Jamaraat:
It is the place of throwing pebbles, which is an compulsory act of Hajj. There are three Jamaraat: the first and the middle, which are near the Masjid of Al-Khayf in the direction of Makkah, and the great one, which is called Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah at the end of Madina in the direction of Makkah.

Jo’aar:
Jo’aar is based on an Arabic word that means raising one’s voice in imploration. Supplicating to Allah The Almighty in a loud voice is called Jo’aar. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {They are crying [to Allah] for help.} [Quran 23:64] Jo’aar in Hajj is exclusive to Talbiyah. In a Hadeeth, the Prophet  said: “It is as if I am watching Moosa (Moses) making Jo’aar,  entreating his Lord with Talbiyah.” The Prophet  also said: “Jibraeel (Gabriel) came to me and said, ‘O Muhammad! Order your Companions to raise their voices in Talbiyah; it is one of the symbols of Hajj.”

Jidaal:
Jidaal is based on an Arabic word that means interweaving, then it later became used in the sense of violent dispute. The Prophet  said: “People never go astray after being upon guidance except through dispute.” Here the Hadith refers to dispute to support falsehood or error, not to manifest the truth. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {No (Jidaal) disputing duringHajj.} [Quran 2:197] meaning a person should not engage in dispute with his brother in a manner that urges him to behave unproperly.

Hajj:
Hajj linguistically signifies frequent visits. According to the Sharee‘ah, Hajj means visiting the Sacred House of Allah to perform rituals during the month of Hajj. A pilgrim is called Al-Haajj because he frequently visits the House to perform Tawaaf Al-Qudoom and other rituals of Hajj.

Al-Hajj Al-Akbar (The Greater or major Hajj):
The greater Hajj refers to the Day of An-Nahr. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And [it is] an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage.} [Quran 9:3] It was called the greater Hajj because people called ‘Umrah the minor Hajj, as authentically narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayrah in Saheeh Al-Bukhaari. It was narrated that, “‘Umrah is the minor Hajj,” but scholars said that this Hadith is not authentic. The Day of An-Nahr was called the greater Hajj because pilgrims perform many rituals in it.

Hijr:
Hijr is derived from an Arabic root signifying impediment or prevention. Hijr describes many sites, but it often refers to the semi-circular wall facing one of the sides of the Ka‘bah. This is part of the foundation laid by Ibrahim (Abraham), May Allah Exalt his mention, which Quraysh excluded when they rebuilt the Ka‘bah. They encircled this place so that people would know that it is part of the Ka‘bah. As a result, it was called Hijr. This place became widely known as Hijr Ismaa‘eel (Ishmael), May Allah Exalt his mention, but there is no basis for this name since Ismaa‘eel helped his father Ibrahim in the process of building the Ka‘bah and it was complete then.

Al-Hajar Al-Aswad (The Block Stone):
The Black Stone is located on the north corner in the wall of the the Ka‘bah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The Black Stone is from Paradise.” [Ahmad, At-Tirmithi: Hasan Saheeh]

Hudaybiyah or Hudaybiyyah:
It is a valley near Makkah which was named after a well in it. It is at approximately 50 km from Makkah. Part of Al-Hudaybiyyah is located within the Sacred surroundings, and another part outside of it. The Prophet (peace be upon him) received devotion from his Companions in Al-Hudayibiyyah and it was called the Allegiance of Ar-Ridhwaan; he signed Al-Hudaybiyyah Peace Treaty with the polytheists in it and made his first ‘Umrah from there however, he was prevented from entering the inside House.

Hateem:
People differed about explaining the location of Al-Hateem; some said that it is located between the Station of Ibrahim along the gate; others said that it is between the Corner and the Station, and Zamzam and Al-Hijr; a third group said that it is between the Black Stone toward the gate and ends at the Station. It is a place where people intensively supplicate Allah The Almighty. People in the pre-Islamic era used to solemnly take vows at that place, so that any one who supplicated against an oppressor and swore falsely would receive punishment immediately. The preponderant opinion is that it refers to Al-Hijr itself because it was destroyed and excluded from the frame of the Ka‘bah (since Hateem may also be derived from an Arabic root that means to destroy).

Khabab:
Khabab is based on an Arabic word that means deception. In a Hadith, “When the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to make Tawaaf, he would hasten in three rounds.”
According to the Sharee‘ah, Khabab refers to fast walking in Tawaaf without running. It is also called Ar-Ramal.

Khayf:
It is a slope of a mountain which is higher than the level of the water stream. There is a Masjid in Madina called Masjid Al-Khayf.

Thaat-‘Irq:
Thaat-Irq literally refers to a garden, and the Arabs used to give this name to the fertile land where plants grow.
Thaat Irq is the site where the people of Iraq and Khurasaan enter the state of Ihraam. It has a small mountain, and is 100 km from Makkah. Thaat ‘Irq is uninhabited nowadays because there are no roads leading to it. Next to it there is a large valley called Al-‘Aqeeq, which is 20 km from Thaat ‘Irq and 120 km from ‘Arafah. People enter the state of Ihraam in that valley.

Thul-Hulayfah:
Hulayfah is based on an Arabic word referring to a type of plant, and it was named this due to the large quantity of that type of tree there.
Thul-Hulayfah is the site where people of Al-Madina enter the state of Ihraam. It is the farthest of Ihraam sites from Makkah. About 400 km away. Now it is known as Abyaar ‘Ali, a name taken after a fabricated story in which Ali, May Allah Be Pleased with him, fought the Jinn over there. Ibn Taymiyyah, May Allah Have mercy upon him, stated that the story is unfounded and was never narrated from ‘Ali, May Allah Be Pleased with him.

Raabigh:
Raabigh in Arabic has three meanings: pure dust, a great deal of anything, or leaving camels to drink water whenever they want.
Raabigh is an interior valley near Al-Juhfah, which became the site where people of Ash-Shaam, Egypt and Morocco enter the state of Ihraam, instead of Al-Juhfah.

Ramal:
Ramal means walking fast with shaking of the shoulders. Technically, Ramal means fast walking during Tawaaf.

Rafath:
Rafath is idle talk, but the term was later used to refer sexual intercourse or something like it. Rafath may refer to an implied reference to intercourse. Some scholars said that Rafath is a word meaning everything a man needs from a woman. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {There is [to be for him] no sexual relations during Hajj.} [Quran 2:197]
It is possible that the verse refers to forbidding foul words, such as mentioning words suggesting intercourse, meaning that there should be no intercourse.
Rafath in the state of Ihraam includes intercourse and such as kissing, touching, flirtation, suggestive words. All are prohibited in the state of Ihraam.

Rafdh:
Rafdh means to leave something. In the Ihraam, it means stopping to continue the rituals of Hajj and planning to end it before its completion. Scholars considered it idle talk where the Ihraam remains subject to its rulings.

Rukn (Ar-Rukn Al-Yamaani):
Rukn in Arabic refers to the strongest part of something.
Ar-Rukn Al-Yamaani is one of the ends of the Ka‘bah, which was called this after the name of a man from Yemen called ’Ubay ibn Saalim, who constructed it.

Ramy (Ramy Al-Jimaar):
Ramy is to cast. Jamrah is a pebble which is thrown and Jimaar is the place where people collect pebbles in great numbers. Jimaar has two meanings:
1.The rocks or pebbles which are thrown.
2.The place where the rocks are thrown since they end up there.
Ramy Al-Jimaar (throwing the pebbles) is a ritual pilgrims do on the day of An-Nahr and three days of At-Tashreeq where he throws seven pebbles in a particular manner mentioned in the book of Fiqh.

Sa’y:
Sa‘y means to walk a lot. The examples of these meanings are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an.
Sa‘y from the Sharee‘ah view means to walk a distance between As-Safa and Al-Marwah seven times after Tawaaf as part of the rituals of Hajj & Umrah. Sometimes Sa‘y is called Tawaaf as referred in the Qur’an in verse [2:158].

Shatharwaan:
An area from the foundation of the Ka‘bah, which appears down the walls of the Ka‘bah but not by the Black Stone. It is two-thirds of a cubit high and is called Ta’zeer because it is like an wrap around the Ka‘bah. Scholars differed about whether it is part of the Ka‘bah or it supports it.

Safa:
Safa is an Arabic word which denotes a smooth stone. In Hajj, Safa mentions one of the mountains of Sa‘y, a hill raised in the mountain of Abu Qubays. A person who stands on it would be parallel from the Black Stone.

Sawaaff:
Sawaaff is the manner which the camel stands on for slaughtering. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {And the camels and cattle We Have Appointed for you as among the symbols of Allah; for you there is good. So mention the name of Allah upon them when lined up [for sacrifice].} [Quran 22:36] A camel is slaughtered while standing on three legs, and its fourth, its left foreleg, is tied.

Tawaaf:
Tawaaf means walk around something, and the person who turns around the house to guard it is called Taa’if. It may also be used  in reference to a touch of the Jinn. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Indeed, those who fear Allah – when an impulse touches them from Satan, they remember [Him] and at once they have insight.} [Quran 7:201] The place of Tawaaf is called Tawaaf and sometimes used in the sense of Sa‘y. Allah The Almighty Says (what means): {Indeed, As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah. So who ever performs Hajj to the House or performs Umrah, there is no blame on him for walking between them.} [Quran 3:158]
As a Sharee‘ah term, Tawaaf means walking around the Ka‘bah seven times without any space between them.

Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah:
Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah in Arabic means returning. If it is used for pilgrims, it has two meanings:

- To proceed quickly from ‘Arafah to Al-Muzdalifah.

- To return from Madina to Makkah on the Day of An-Nahr.

Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah is the Tawaaf that is carried out after return from Arafah on the day of An-Nahr. It is one of the obligatory acts of Hajj, and is known as Rukn Al-Hajj.

Tawaaf Az-Ziyaarah:
Tawaaf Az-Ziyaarah is called Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah. It is called Tawaaf Az-Ziyaarah due to the fact it is done on visiting the Ka‘bah. It is called Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah because it is done after the visit is over.

Tawaaf Al-Qudoom:
Tawaaf Al-Qudoom is the Tawaaf that a pilgrim carries on his arrival to perform Hajj. Scholars agreed that it is Sunnah.

Tawaaf Al-Wadaa’:
Tawaaf Al-Wadaa is the Tawaaf that a pilgrim makes after he finishes the rituals of Hajj and prepares to go back to his country. Tawaaf Al-Wadaa is compulsory.

Ajj:
Ajj  means speaking in a higher volume. The Prophet  said: “The best acts of Hajj are the Ajj and Thajj.” [At-Tirmithi, Ibn Maajah and others] Scholars specified this Hadith as Saheeh. Thajj was recently explained.

Arafaat or ‘Arafah:
Most scholars consider the two terms equal. ‘Arafah is located along the road between Makkah and At-Taa’if, 22 km to the east of Makkah, 10 km from Mina and 6 km from Al-Muzdalifah. It is a stretched plain surrounded by a mountainous curve whose cavity is called the valley of Arafah.
Standing in Arafah is the most important ritual of Hajj and the only one that is performed outside the Sacred surroundings. The whole area of Arafah is a place allowable to stand in, as stated in the Hadith. Standing in Arafah starts after the prayer of Thuhr on the 9th day of Thul-Hijjah.

Adhadh:
Adhadh is an Arabic word that means to cut. In his Khutbah which was given to him on the day of the Conquest of Makkah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade Muslims to cut the trees of Makkah.

‘Atab:
Atab is based on an Arabic word that means destruction of an animal. Atab Al-Hady means death of the animal, so it is slaughtered. Naajiyah Al-Khuzaai, a caretaker of the camels of the Prophet  said: “O Messenger of Allah! What should I do with the camels that are exhausted and worn out?” The Prophet  instructed him to slaughter them, dip its hoofs in its blood, and leave it for the people to eat.

Fidyah:
Fidyah rmentions money or anything else which be given away like it. Fidyat Al-Athaa (Fidyah of harm) means what a pilgrim offers to Allah The Almighty as recompense for committing restrictions of Ihraam, like wearing tight fitting clothes, perfume, etc.

Fawaat:
Fawaat means to miss something. In the context of Hajj, Fawaat means missing the act while staying in Arafah. A pilgrim who does not stay in Arafah, his Hajj becomes unacceptable. Most of the scholars said that he must end his Ihraam to perform Umrah. He must make up for the Hajj next year if his Hajj is compulsory. It is not mandatory on him to make up for that Hajj by offering sacrificial animals if he had made Ishtiraat.

Qubaa’:
Qubaa’ is a well after which the village of Qubaa’ was named. It is the residence of Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf, a tribe from Al-Ansaar. The village of Qubaa’ is about 3 kilometres from Al-Madina, on the left of the person who is heading towards Makkah. Located in Qubaa’ is the Masijd about which Allah The Almighty Says: {A mosque founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy for you to stand in.} [Quran 9:108] It is the Masjid in which the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) and his noble Companions, May Allah Be Pleased with them, performed prayer toward the direction of Jerusalem before they were commanded to face the Sacred House Of Allah. Also located in Qubaa’ is Masjid Ad-Dhiraar which is mentioned in the Quran. Allah The Almighty Says: {And there are those [hypocrites] who took for themselves a mosque for causing harm.} [Quran 9:107]

Qiraan:
Qiraan is derived from an Arabic root that means pulling towards or joining. In the context of Hajj, it means to combine between Hajj and ‘Umrah in one Ihraam. In a Hadeeth, The Prophet  “…combined Hajj and ‘Umrah…” It means that he declared to perform both Hajj and ‘Umrah together with the same intention, the same Talbiyah, the same Tawaaf and the same Sa‘y. In this case, a pilgrim says, “Labbayk bi-Hijjah wa ‘Umrah (O Allaah! I declare my intention to perform Hajj and ‘Umrah).”

Qarn Al-Manaazil:
In Arabic, the word Qarn has many signs, such as top of a mountain, the first part of a desert, a single mountain and the beginning of anything.
Qarn Al-Manaazil is the site where people of Yemen enter the state of Ihraam. Ibn Umar, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said: “The Prophet (peace be upon him) aappointed the Qarn [Al-Manaazil] to be the site for Ihraam for the people of Najd.” Qarn Al-Manaazil is 75 kilometres from Makkah. Some people think that it is the same place as Qarn Ath-Tha‘aalib, but the correct perspective is that they are different places and near the end is a mountain that fails to notice the end of Madina. Qarn Al-Manaazil is now know as As-Sayl Al-Kabeer.

Makheet:
Makheet refers to a needle. Allah The Almighty Mentioned it in the Qur’an Saying {Nor will they enter Paradise until a camel enters into the eye of a needle.} [Quran 7:40]
Makheet refers to clothes sewn to fit the body, such as the Kameez (shirt) or Salwaal (trousers). It is not allowed for the person in the state of Ihraam to wear Makheet.

Marwah:
Marwah is referring to a shiny white stone used for starting a fire. Marwah is a mountain in Makkah named after this rock.

Muzdalifah:
Muzdalifah is based on an Arabic word that means meeting, either because it helps people get closer to Allah The Almighty, or because pilgrims assemble there after their coming back from Arafah, or because it brings them nearer to Madina after their return from Arafah.
Muzdalifah is a place located between the internal part of Al-Ma’zimayn and Muhassir, and is halfway between Madina and Arafaat, about 5.5 kilometres from Madina. It is the place where pilgrims spend their night and unite there prayers after they return from Arafaat. Muzdalifah is also called Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haraam.

Masjid Al-Qiblatayn:
It is located at the border of Al-‘Aqeeq in the north west of Al-Madina. The Masjid was named as such because it has two Qiblahs: the first one is at the north toward Jerusalem to which Muslims performed prayers at the beginning of Islam, and the second one
is at the south towards Makkah, which became the established Qiblah. Allah The Almighty Says: {So turn your face towards Al-Masjid Al-Haraam.} [Quran 2:144]

Masjid Namirah:
Namirah is a place located in Arafah which the Prophet dismounted and gave his Farewell Khutbah. In a Hadith, it is narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) ordered that a leather tent be set up for him in Namirah. ” It is the mountain that marks the boundaries of the Sacred Surroindings in Arafaat.”

Mash’ar Al-Haraam:
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haraam is the whole area of Muzdalifah where pilgrims perform prayers after they return from Arafaat. They perform both Maghrib and Isha Prayers combined and delayed in Muzdalifah where they also perform Fajr Prayer of the first day of ‘Eid Al-Adha before they went to throw the pebbles. It is obligatory on the pilgrims to spend the night there. The name Al-Mash‘ar Al-Haram is given to the mountain of Quzah in Muzdalifah on which the Prophet (peace be upon him) stood on the Day of An-Nahr. He glorified and praised Allah The Almighty there until sunrise, then headed to Madina.

Ma’dhoob:
Ma‘dhoob is based on an Arabic word that means to cut off. Ma‘dhoob is the person who suffers a fatal condition that prevents him from performing the rituals of Hajj, such as paralysis, so another person performs Hajj for him.

Maqaam (Maqaam Ibrahim):
Maqaam is located in the Sacred Mosque, and refers to the stone on which Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), May Allah Praise his mention, who stood to raise the foundations of the House. It is mentioned in the Qur’an, as Allah The Almighty Says: {And take from the standing place of Ibrahim a place of prayer.} [Quran 2:125] Some traditions mention that the stone was a ruby or sapphire from Paradise. It is closer to the Ka‘bah than the water of Zamzam.

Multazam:
Al-Multazam is a part of the Ka‘bah that pilgrims cling to for seeking refuge, and is located between the Black Stone. It is also called Al-Mad‘a. Ibn Abbaas, May Allah Be Pleased with him, said: “The place between the Corner and the gate is called Al-Multazam; no Muslim stands in it and asks Allah for something, but He Will grant it to him.” It was narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him)used to put his face,arms,chest and palms between the Corner and the gate.

Miqaat:
Miqaat refers to the time appointed for an action. Miqaat of specific people means the place where they enter the state of Ihraam.
It is more important than the date. Some said that it is the time of an act of worship. Miqaat of Hajj in Sharee‘ah is the time of entering Ihraam for Hajj.

Meelaan Akhdharaan:
Meelan Akhdharaan refers to the two denotations in the wall of the Sacred Mosque, in the place assigned for Sa‘y which is between As-Safa and Al-Marwa that mark the location of the inner part of the valley, the location of hurrying. A pilgrim hurries from the beginning of the inner part of the valley starting at the first denotation till the end of the valley at the second one, then he walks the rest of it.

Himyaan:
Himyaan is the waistband of pants. It is a strap a pilgrim wears around his waist and a pocket to keep money inside of. In Saheeh Al-Bukhaari, ‘Ataa’ May Allah Have mercy upon him, said that a pilgrim is permissionable to wear rings and waistbands. Ibn Umar, May Allah Be Pleased with him, performed Tawaaf in the state of Ihraam, while he was wearing a piece of cloth around his waist.” Majority of scholars believe that a person in the state of Ihraam is permitted to wear a Himyaan.

Yalamlam:
Yalamlam is based on an Arabic word that means to combine one’s affairs. Yalamlam is one of the Tehama Mountains, 92 kilometres to the South of Makkah. Yalamlam is currently known as As-Sa‘diyyah, and it is the Miqaat of Yemen people, India, Jawa and Sumatra Islands. The Prophet (peeace be upon him) said in the Hadith of Mawaaqeet: “and for the people of Yemen, Yalamlam” The Masjid of Mu‘aath ibn Jabal, May Allah Be Pleased with him is located there.

Day of At-Tarwiyyah:
The 8th day of the month of Thul-Hijjah, it was named this because people used to drink a lot of water in arrangement for setting out to Madina and Arafah. On that day, the pilgrims go on to Madina to spend there night there.

Day of Ar-Ru’oos:
The second day of the days of Tashreeq, Was narrated on the authority of Sarraa’ bint Nabhaan Al-Ghanawiyyah that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said in the Farewell Hajj: “Have you idea of which day it is? Is this the day which people call the day of Ar-Ru’oos?” People replied that Allah The Almighty and His Messenger know best. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “This is the middle of the day of the days of At-Tashreeq.” It was called the day of Ar-Ru’oos because people eat heads of sacrificial animals on that day.

Day of As-Sadr:
The 13th day of Thul-Hijjah, it is also known as the day of the second return. As-Sadr is an Arabic word which means to return from a certain travel, and it was named this because pilgrims return from Makkah to their own countries on that very same day.

Day of Arafah:
The 9th day of Thul-Hijjah, was named so because the pilgrims stay in Arafah on that day. Staying in Arafah is the major obligation deed of Hajj. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The Hajj is Arafah.”[Ahmad: Saheeh]

Day of Al-Qarr:
Qarr is based on an Arabic word which means the place of dwelling. The Day of Al-Qarr is the day which is next to the Day of An-Nahr. The 11th day of Thul-Hijjah was called so because pilgrims stay in Madina to complete the ritual of throwing pebbles on the Jamar.

Day of An-Nahr:
It is the first day of Eid Al-Adha, the 10th day of Thul-Hijjah. It was called this because live animals are slaughtered on this day as an act of worship to The Almighty Allah.

Day of An-Nafr:
Nafr is based on an Arabic word that means a group of people. The day that is next to the day of Al-Qarr (the 11th of Thul-Hijjah) is called the day of An-Nafr in which pilgrims go to from Madina. It is also known as the first day of An-Nafr (the 12th of Thul-Hijjah), where the second day of An-Nafr is the 13th of Thul-Hijjah, the final day of the days of Tashreeq.

Zamzam:
Zamzam is based on an Arabic word that means to pull. Zamzam water means plentiful water. Zamzam is a widely-known water well in Makkah. The name is given to it due to its plentiful water or this is the appropriate name for the well. The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The water of Zamzam serves its purpose for which it is drunken.”

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